According to one study organized through pet industry resources by the Pet Industry Joint Advisory Council (PIJAC), there were 11.6 million companion birds living in 5.5 million households in 1990. Two years later, in 1992, PIJAC reported 14 million birds in 5.6 million households. PIJAC later qualified the figures from both of these years, stating that, “1990 and 1992 bird survey data [were] reportedly understated due to method of classifying breeders versus owners.” With their criteria revised, in 1994, PIJAC reported 31 million birds living in 5.7 million households, and in 1996, 40 million birds in 5.9 million households. It is unclear if these statistics include only birds kept in private homes as “pets” and hobby breeders, or if they also cover birds kept exclusively in breeding facilities, wholesale/retail facilities, zoos, shelters, sanctuaries, entertainment venues, or conservation programs. But one can assume that the large increase indicates that this number does, indeed, include captive birds kept in situations other than private homes.